Dr. Steven Gray
Background & Education
Steven R. Gray graduated from Arizona State University with a Bachelor of Arts in education and a Master of Arts in education. His major related to the Master of Arts in education was counseling. Dr. Gray later graduated from the University of Arizona with a doctorate of education in educational psychology and a minor in counseling. While pursuing his undergraduate degree at Arizona State University, Dr. Gray worked at the WIC program at the Arizona State Hospital, which involved first line supervision of maximum security residents, some of whom were assigned from the Arizona State Prison Complex in Florence, as well as others, which included assessment and treatment related to Rule 11.2 and guilty except insane offenders.
Early Career In Teaching & Corrections
Dr. Gray’s first position as a licensed professional was as a counselor and teacher at Bowie Public Schools in the Bowie San Simon area of Arizona. He taught business subjects, coached track and volleyball and provided counseling services to students for two years. When Dr. Gray graduated from the University of Arizona, he served briefly as an adjunct assistant professor of educational psychology, teaching personality and intelligence assessment, while serving at the same time as staff psychologist at the Arizona Youth Center, later Catalina Mountain Juvenile Institution, for over three years. During his tenure at the Arizona Youth Center, Dr. Gray was also an associate in clinical training for the University of Arizona and provided field supervision and training of clinical psychology practicum students. Later, he transferred to adult services and became the Deputy Assistant Program Superintendent at the Arizona Correctional Training facility, now known as the Arizona State Prison Complex, Tucson. In addition to the typical duties of a superintendent, Dr. Gray supervised medical, pastoral and counseling services, which included sex offender counseling.
Early Career In Therapy
After a brief stint in private practice, providing professional services to the Gila County Guidance Clinic, St. David Public Schools, the burn unit of St. Mary’s Hospital and parolees under supervision of the Department of Corrections, Dr. Gray returned to the Arizona State Prison Complex in Tucson as a Psychologist II, conducting individual and group therapy sessions and providing psychological evaluations for general population inmates. He was later promoted to Psychologist III (Programs Administrator) at the Arizona State Prison Complex -Tucson, which at the time contained four prison units, with over 2,200 inmates. Dr. Gray supervised all program aspects of the Complex, including classification, educational services, as well as psychological and religious services. Under his supervision were also contracted in-house specific therapy programs. Typical outside service programs coordinated include visitation, substance abuse treatment, various religious services, mental health education, as well as sex offender treatment.
Early Career In Sex Offender Treatment
Under Dr. Gray’s supervision was Robert Emerick, M.Ed., who developed and implemented a novel sex offender program, which later became the model for a program that Dr. Gray and a colleague developed at the Arizona State Prison Complex, Santa Rita. The model chosen included material from Robert L. Emerick’s program, along with a cognitive behavioral program with a relapse prevention model very similar to the one offered by Dr. Gene Abel, who is one of the leading international researchers and assessment and treatment providers of sexual offenders. Dr. Abel has published at least 500 scholarly articles (chapters, journal articles) and is the creator of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, which is the largest organization in the world that provides training and research that culminates in an annual fall convention in the U.S. and Canada. After coordinating the sex offender group for a few months, Dr. Gray worked in private practice with Robert Emerick and received extensive training in the assessment and treatment of sexual abuse. In approximately 1987, Dr. Gray began commuting from Tucson to Phoenix and was officed at Phoenix Memorial Hospital, where he provided assessment for the Adolescent and Sexuality Addictions Program. He was also an independent contractor for the Supreme Court of Arizona to conduct evaluation and treatment of juvenile sex offenders on an outpatient basis. He was also awarded a contract for sex offender treatment and assessment to the juvenile division of the Arizona State Department of Corrections at Catalina Mountain Juvenile Institution. Dr. Gray was Clinical Director of this program from June 1987 until May 1993. He was also Project Manager for the sex offender treatment program at the Arizona State Prison Complex in Tucson and Clinical Director from 1989 until 1996. Dr. Gray also provided follow-up services to the Southern Arizona Correctional Release Center June 1989 until June 1991.
By 1992, Dr. Gray had relocated to Phoenix and opened a small office on Jentilly Lane in Tempe. Dr. Gray conducted sex offender groups for Maricopa County Adult Probation under the supervision of Dr. Tom Selby and psychological assessments to the Phoenix Memorial Hospital program and began evaluating Rule 11 and Rule 26.5 persons for Maricopa County. In 1996, Dr. Gray received a contract to provide assessment and treatment services for sex offenders for the U.S. Probation Department, which he held for a decade and continues to date to provide assessment services.
In addition to providing psychological services to Superior Court, Dr. Gray has provided assessment, expertise, and/or treatment to other Superior Courts in Arizona, including but not limited to, Apache, Coconino, Cochise, Gila, Graham, Greeley, Pima, Santa Cruz, Mohave, Yavapai and Yuma, and as such, conducted assessments, provided group therapy, as well as individual and family treatment for sex offenders in the community. Dr. Gray has also provided psychophysiological evaluations of individuals charged with various crimes in various stages of the criminal justice system and provided expert testimony to various Superior Courts throughout Arizona, that includes Rule 11.2, Rule 26.5 and sexually violent persons evaluations. In 1997, Dr. Gray evaluated the first person alleged to be a sexually violent person and has since evaluated over 200 potentially sexually violent persons under ARS 36-3701. For the last two years, he has had the contract for the Arizona Department of Corrections to screen sexually violent persons related to their status as a sexually violent person. The contract continues to date. Since 1995, Dr. Gray has provided psychosexual evaluations for Child Protective Services.
Dr. Gray routinely serves as an expert witness on matters related to exception to Rule 404-b and404-c, which allows under certain circumstances a prior victim of a prior act to testify at trial. If an expert determines the acts meet certain criteria. Dr. Gray has also testified numerous times in numerous counties related to sexual offender “characteristics” to educate juries with regard to these characteristics. Dr. Gray was a psychological consultant through contract with Dr. Steven Carson to provide consultation and treatment to various police agencies in the Valley, including Phoenix, Scottsdale and Tempe Police Departments.
In the early part of 1996, Dr. Gray incorporated into a professional corporation, doing business as Psychological & Consulting Services (PCS) and as a result, expanded his contract with the assistance of subcontractors who assisted in conducting assessments, consultation and treatment of sex offenders. Additionally, Dr. Gray provides clinical adjunct services for Argosy and Midwestern Universities by training doctoral level practicum students, interns, as well as postdoctoral residents beginning in 1998. Dr. Gray’s first direct training related to sex offenders was with Steven Wolfe, who at the time was a clinician at Northwest Treatment Associates, which was one of the first outpatient sex offender treatment programs in the country. Dr. Wolfe became a researcher/editor of a well-known scholarly journal.
Training, Research & Continuing Education
Dr. Gray has received over 1,000 hours of specified training related to sexual abuse and victimology, as well as general psychological issues, which may relate to sexual abuse. These areas include polygraphy, psychological assessment, general assessment, treatment and supervision, including various models like Pathways, Good Lives Model, cognitive behavioral intervention and relapse prevention. Dr. Gray has also received training related to various research topics, including actuarial devices, the Abel Assessment, juvenile sex offenders, intimacy issues, plethysmography, addiction concepts, denial and minimization, paraphiliac behaviors and diagnoses, competency assessment and restitution, the etiology of sexual abuse, as well as general violence v. sexual violence, issues related to relapse, risk assessment and prediction, determining the likelihood of sexual abuse, courtroom procedures, and forensic issues, attachment, intimacy issues, statistical procedures and standards of practice.
Dr. Gray received over 100 hours of training from Robert L. Emerick, Director of the Assessment and Treatment of Adolescent and Adult Sexual Offenders in the late 1980s. Dr. Gray has attended all but two of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA), Annual Research and Data Conferences on the evaluation and treatment of sexual abusers since 1988. Dr. Gray spent one week at Northwest Treatment Association and Training with Roger and Florence Wolfe (not related to Steven Wolfe) and received training on relapse prevention activity, sex offender treatment, behavioral methods and group process. In addition, Dr. Gray spent one week with Dr. Gene Abel, receiving training in the assessment and treatment of sexual abusers. Dr. Gray has received training from quite noted research and treatment persons throughout the world, including Nichols and Molinder (Multiphasic Sex Inventory II); Roland Summit, M.D. (The Accommodation Syndrome); Jan Hindeman, M.S. (author of Just Before Dawn regarding victimization issues); Judith Becker, Ph.D. (adolescent sex offenders); Lucy Berliner, M.S.W.(Harbor View Program – UCLA); John Hunter, Ph.D. (juvenile sex offender issues); Patrick Carnes (sexual addictions); Stanley Abrams, Ph.D. (polygraphing sex offenders – Dr. Gray has over 400 hours of training in polygraphy); Prentky and Knight (classification of rape); Barry Moletsky, M.D. (Community based research); Bill Marshall, Ph.D. (Researcher and publisher); Howard Barbaree (research factors related to assessment of sex offenders); Janice Marcus (past Director of the Sex Offender Treatment Evaluation Project); Mark Weinrott, Ph.D. (Researcher/Psychologist); David Finkelhore, Ph.D. (victims of sexual abuse); Robert D. Hare (author of psychopathy checklist – Dr. Gray is a certified Hare examiner); various training programs related to plethysmography from various experts (Dr. Gray has conducted at least 2,000 penile plethysmographs); various training related to Abel Assessments, mostly conducted by Dr. Abel, M.D.; and various training related to assessment and testimony regarding sexually violent persons, including Dennis Doren, Ph.D. (retired).Other notables from whom Dr. Gray has received training include: Don Krapohl (polygraphy); Keith Kaufmann (Modus Operandi); David Thornton (Structured Risk Assessment); Vernon Quinsey, Ph.D. (Researcher, Publisher – Retired), Michael Seto, Ph.D. (pedophilia); Elizabeth Letourneau, Ph.D. (multisystemic therapy); Richard Laws, Ph.D. (Research, Author of Books), Kim English, M.A. (Research Director, State of Colorado); Tony Cavanagh Johnson, Ph.D. (young child abusers); John Brier, Ph.D. (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder); and Mary Meining, M.S.W. (reunification activities).
Dr. Gray has presented on numerous topics related to sex offender assessment and treatment to the following: Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, including 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2003. Dr. Gray has presented conferences at the Arizona State Bar Association (2007); Idaho Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (2004); Bi-annual Conference of International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers; Sexual Abuse and Sexual Violence (Vienna, Austria, 2002); National Council on State Boards of Nursing National Investigator Summit; Sex Offender Treatment Specialist Certification Program, at Ohio University (2001); Arizona Supreme Court and Center for Sex Offender Management; Effective Sex Offender Management Conference (1998); and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children Annual Training Conference (1996).
Dr. Gray has four publications in scholarly journals or books. The first publication was a comparison of the association and minimal arousal conditioning techniques to reduce deviant arousal in the laboratory, published in Sexual Abuse; Journal of Research and Treatment, 1995 (Journal for ATSA). Dr. Gray’s next scholarly article was predictors of treatment completion in a correctional sex offender treatment program with Judith Becker, published in 2001, in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Also in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Dr. Gray published an article concerning predictive validity of actuarial risk assessment in 2003 with Debra Lewis, Ph.D., Darci Bartosh, Psy.D. and Dr. Tina Garby, Psy.D. This article has been widely cited in textbooks and journals. Dr. Gray also published an article in an electronic journal, the Journal of Sex Offender Civil Commitment; Science and the Law, edited by Joseph Ploud, Ph.D. The title of the article was the Comparison of the Abel Assessment for Sexual Interest in penile plethysmography in an outpatient sample of sex offenders. This article was used a great deal in federal courts throughout the U.S. Dr. Gray also published a chapter in a book for introductory psychology, entitled “Just Your Average Sex Offender,” published in Getting Started in Sociology, edited by Lisa Grey-Whitaker, 2005/2006. Also, the presentation by Darci Bartosh, Psy.D. and Dr. Tina Garby in Vienna was published as a mini chapter in the book entitled, “Sexual Violence and Sexual Abuse: From Understanding to Protection and Prevention,” The Seventh Conference of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, September 11-14, 2002. Dr. Gray most recently published a journal article with Dr. Gene Abel, Dr. Tina Garby et. al. in The Journal of Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, September 20, 2013, entitled Visual Reaction Time As A Predictor of Sexual Offense Recidivism.
Psychological & Consulting Services (PCS) was incorporated as a professional corporation in January 1996 at its current location of 1930 S. Alma School Road, B-120, Mesa, Arizona 85210. PCS was incorporated to accommodate the expansion of services provided by PCS facilitated by licensed practitioners, mostly psychologists and licensed professional counselors. Expansion was necessary to provide comprehensive services primarily to Maricopa County Adult Probation to allow for increased numbers and variability in services, including chaperon services for non offending partners, educational programming in the form of a Sexuality and Paraphilia class, couples counseling, individual psychotherapy and group therapy. In addition, PCS has become more comprehensive in scope, providing services to other contractors including Child Protective Services (Department of Economic Security), vocational rehabilitation (Department of Economic Security), sexuality assessment and treatment services to other counties, predominantly including Yavapai, Yuma, Pinal and Maricopa, that includes evaluations, such as competency to stand trial evaluations, general mental status under Rule 26.5, pre-adjudication assessments for the Public Defenders Office and Federal probation.
PCS Expands Its Expert Testimony
As well PCS has expanded its expert testimony services to Arizona Superior Courts in the form of exceptions to 404-b and 404-c (prior acts testimony), offender characteristics, aggravation mitigation testimony and as material witnesses to support therapeutic efforts of PCS. Additionally throughout the years, PCS has provided assessment and treatment services to various professional boards, including the Board of Chiropractic Examiners, the Board of Medical Examiners, the Board of Naturopathic Medicine as well as the Board of Nursing.
Currently, professional staff at PCS includes five psychologists and one masters level person, who provides assessment and treatment services to predominantly Spanish speaking clients through a contract with Maricopa County Adult Probation. PCS has maintained contracts through the Arizona Supreme Court, the Arizona Superior Court (and its various counties), as well as other State agencies, including but not limited to Child Protective Services and the Arizona Department of Corrections.
Research efforts have produced six publications in refereed journals and two chapters in books. Currently, PCS research includes demographic data related to persons, who have been accused of sexual abuse but were never arrested and persons who have been arrested but never admitted to sexual misconduct. Along with Dr. Abel, PCS assesses various predictive factors related to relapse, its assessment and potential prevention. PCS is also embarking on the standardization of various actuarial devices in Arizona.
PCS Expands Its Services
Other areas of recent endeavor include general forensic practice, including mitigation, assessment of potential offenders accused of felonies (e.g. homicide, theft), introduction of psychosexual evaluations in Family Court, forensic examination of children and the application of newer dynamic variables to the prediction of risk for sex offenders in the community, which includes the Static 99-R.